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Presented in English and Italian.
All infants, even healthy full-terms, undergo routine diagnostic and therapeutic painful procedures as part of routine medical care and non-pharmacologic measures should be adopted to reduce the pain sensation. We have studied in 61 healthy full-term neonates the different analgesic effect of three non-pharmacologic interventions [Breastfeeding combined with Skin-to-Skin Contact (BF+SSC), Oral Glucose 10% (OG) and Maternal Holding plus Swaddling (MH+SW)] during heel prick for metabolic screening, evaluating both NIPS score and physiological parameters variations [Heart Rate (HR) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) by pulse oxymeter]. Our clinical and physiological data suggest that the combination of maternal-infant relationship with oral stimulation provides the deepest analgesia. BF is based on the unique primary relationship between the mother and her newborn and it provides a natural multisensorial stimulation, so it is possible to suppose that BF+SSC should be considered the optimal non-pharmacologic measure to manage the procedural pain in healthy full-term infants.